L.20 - Attitude and Motivation

Those who soak in 'Achievement' And ahead in 'Economic' toil surge, Those who stress performance to their best, They shall successful emerge.

UDYAM SHASTRA- Chapter 04, Verse 07

Key Objectives:

Reading this module and doing the students activities will enable the students to:

  • Understand required mind set that produces positive and rewarding behavior.

  • Understand the driving force that brings about change in people.

Enterprise Concepts:

Attitudes: "Attitude is the required mind set that produces positive and rewarding behaviour". Attitude affects everything else in life. Recognizing and capitalizing on inner strengths can conquer even the most negative self attitudes.

Motivation: "The driving force that brings about change in people is called Motivation." Motivation is characterized by "NEEDS" that drive goals of a person. Identifying the different needs of a person would then lead one to understand the motivating forces. These needs can also be linked to products and services that people desire.These needs are characterised by the following levels of needs satisfaction:

1. Physiological Needs: The objects of these needs include such things as food, water, shelter, rest and exercise.

2. Safety/Security Needs: These include 'economic security' aspects like steady employment, provisions for old age, insurance against catastrophes etc. , as also 'psychological security' i.e. the man's confidence that he will be able to deal with the situations that confront him.

3. Love/social needs: These needs are satisfied through relations with other people. These relations are built through friendly greetings, social conversations, exchange of token gifts of affection etc.

4. Esteem Needs: These include the desire for status.The latter depends on the value of a position in the eyes of others. Often various objects of possession are used to define status e.g. Size of office, model of car, type of dress one wears etc.

5. Self-Actualization needs: These relate to man's desire to feel a sense of personal accomplishment.  


Activity 1 - Case studies in attitude and motivation.

Instruction To Students

  • Students should read the case-studies given and answer the questions given after each case study.
  • After completing the activity, each group should present and share its main discussion points with the rest of the class.


Anwari Begum gained her Home Science Degree from Home Science College,Jabalpur. But her first love was stitching and embroidery as a hobby. She presented her works to others as gifts and gained a lot of friends in the community around her. Anwari underwent an entrepreneurship training camp and decided to start her own enterprise. In her endeavor , she has received the whole-hearted support of her mother and uncle.

Anwari Begum has called her unit as "Taj Palace Readymade Garments".It is located at Umaria in Madhya Pradesh. Here she produces ladies "salwar-suits". But she found that customer prefrences are always changing. Initially she found it difficult to cope with this. But her innovativeness always helped her overcome the odds and she now stitches varied designs according to the fashion of the day and customer liking.

Today her production is 100 suits a month bringing in an income of Rs.30,000 per month."The key to my success is my motto- It is hard work and not mere wishful thinking that makes one an achiever,"says Anwari Begum.Anwari Begum is a good case of a young vocational entrepreneur who decided on her goal, made continuous efforts and worked hard with confidence to achieve the goal.


Step 01. 1. Make a list of attitudes that Anwari Begum has that has made her a successful entrepreneur.


Step 02. 2. How do attitudes overcome odds?



Nirmal belonged to a village. His father is a farmer. The eldest of seven brothers, Nirmal received education till 10th. Std.in his village school.

After his school education, Nirmal started helping his father in his field work. But the family was large and their small farm was unable to provide for all.

"Should I continue to stay in the village or should I go to the city?" asked Nirmal of his well-wisher Amartya. Amartya was the local retired school teacher.

"What is your prior commitment?" asked Amartya.

"It is my village," said Nirmal simply.

"No! What I mean is, is it to remain poor or is it to perform some economic activity that will earn you a living?" asked Amartya.

"Certainly it is to earn a living," said Nirmal, "But I am afraid to go to the city."

"Is there a need to change?" asked Amartya.

"Yes, there is very much a need to change, for otherwise we are in sufferance", said Nirmal.

"What can go wrong, if you continue in the old path?" asked Amartya.

"Inability to buy food, clothing adequately," said Nirmal.

"Would you like go for a trial of a few days to the city and see how you fare?" asked Amartya.

"Not a bad idea at all!" exclaimed Nirmal.

"What do you think will be the hurdles?" continued Amartya.

"I have an uncle in the city. He has a fabrication shop. He has often invited me there. But the hurdle is that I do not know anything about welding," said Nirmal.

"Why don?t you look upon your uncle as your mentor or dialogue partner and discuss out the matter with him. May be learning welding is not that difficult after all?" suggested Amartya.

Nirmal agreed whole-heartedly.

Eventually, Nirmal went to the city and worked in his Uncle's fabrication shop. Here he learnt, not only about welding but also about identifying quality raw materials, machines and market demand, little by little. Nirmal's few days in the city became a three-year stint of learning the tricks of the trade. Thanks to his school teacher, Nirmal's attitude had undergone a change. He was now always willing to accept new things in life.

Finally Nirmal came back to his village and started a fabrication shop of his own. His enterprise has now grown big and he is the most successful vocational entrepreneur in and around his village.


1. What was Nirmal?s prior commitment ?

2. What would have gone wrong if Nirmal had continued with his old attitude?

3. How did Nirmal eventually change?

4. What lessons do you draw from this case study about ?Attitudes and need to change them as life progresses.?


Instruction To Students

  • The students should answer the question in the activity 2 worksheet through discussions in their group.

  • Students should study then study the figure of "Needs/wants hierarchy pyramid visa a vis Enterprises" and fill enterprise Products/Services in the blank spaces provided adjacent to each level of Needs/Wants.

  • After completing the activity, each group should present and share its main discussion points with the rest of the class.


1. What physiological needs / bodily requirements do you have.? List five products/ service you have bought or used in last month to fulfill these needs.

2. What are the things / issues that make you feel unsafe in your life? What products/service have you or your friends bought in last one year , to overcome the fear of these unsafe feelings.

3. Who are the people who love you or you love? Can you live without the love of these people?

4. What do you do to gain their love? What tokens of love and affection have you recently bought for people you love?

5. What else do you think you can do to get their love?

6. What are the things that you do to get recognition / admiration / appreciation from others? Are there some products/services that you can buy to achieve a certain status?

7. At the moment what is the one thing that can give you the most satisfaction / happiness?

8. If you had money would you always feel happy?

9. Would you do anything for money? Why not?


Instruction To Students

  • The students should answer the question in the activity 3 worksheet through discussions in their group. 

  • Students should study figure of "Milestones of Holistic Human Development" and fill enterprise Products/Services in the blank spaces provided adjacent to stage of each development. One example is given.

  • After completing the activity, each group should present and share its main discussion points with the rest of the class.