Lesson 4 - CHOICES

Competence 1.4 Note for teacher: 

In this lesson the children should be able to identify the range of opportunities (choices) available for starting an enterprise and the various strategies that may be adopted to produce different types of products and services. 

Sub-Topic 4.1 : Raw-Materials 

Baker makes bread. 
Baker uses FLOUR to make the bread. 

Tailor makes clothes. 
He uses CLOTH to make clothes. 

Carpenter makes chairs. 
He uses WOOD to make chairs. 

FLOUR, CLOTH AND WOOD are MATERIALS to make things. 
They are called RAW-MATERIALS. 
RAW means that it is not ready for use. 

Baker BAKES the raw-flour to make bread. 
Tailor STITCHES the raw-cloth to make clothes. 
Carpenter CUTS raw-wood to make chairs. 

Everyone does some work to make raw-materials into useful things. 

You can choose to make what you like. 
There are many choices .

(Teacher should encourage the students to think of enterprising uses of flowers, paper, wood and cloth. Other examples of raw-materials and GOODS and SERVICES you can make from them can also be discussed).

We can use flowers to make: 
1. Garland 
2. Bouquet 

Fill in the blanks: 
a) We can use paper to make things like: 
1. _______________ 2.______________ 

b) We can use wood to make things like: 
1. _______________ 2.______________ 

c) We can use cloth to make things like : 
1. _______________ 2.______________ 

Lesson 4: CHOICES 
Sub-Topic 4.2 : Production 

When you make something ,it is called PRODUCTION. 

What you make is called a PRODUCT. 

Sometimes only one worker makes the complete product . 
This is called UNIT PRODUCTION. 

Sometimes many workers make the product together. 
This is called GROUP PRODUCTION. 

An artist makes a painting alone. 
Painting is made by unit production. 

A worker makes a garland by herself. 
This is also unit production. 

Many workers are needed to make a house. 
House is made by group production. 

Many workers are needed in a hotel to make and serve food. 
Food is made and served by group production in hotels.


Take some loose blank drawing paper. Draw the following  on the paper. Every child to work alone this time. 

STEP 1. Draw a rectangle of length L=5 cm and width W=2 cm. 

STEP 2. Draw two triangles on either ends ,with edge E= 2 cm. 

STEP 3. Draw one triangle of height H=3 cm and Base B=3cm .This is the sail of the boat. 

STEP 4. Colour the boat. 

Good. You have just done unit production of a paper boat.


Please form yourself into groups of four children each .Give yourselves numbers from one to four. 
Take four pieces of blank drawing paper for each group. 

First student should do only STEP 1 of previous exercise on all the four sheets of paper ,one by one and pass each paper, 
as it gets ready, to second student. 

Second student should do only STEP 2 of previous exercise on all the four sheets of paper ,one by one and pass each 
paper, as it gets ready, to third student. 

Third student should do only STEP 3 of previous exercise on all the four sheets of paper ,one by one and pass each paper, 
as it gets ready, to fourth student. 

Fourth student should do only STEP 4 of previous exercise on all the four sheets of paper ,one by one and put aside the 
boats. These boats are ready for use. 

What you have completed is GROUP PRODUCTION.


What method of production was more fun to do, 
Unit production or Group production? 
Why ? 

Teacher’s notes: 
Depending on the time available and ability of the students to absorb information, the teacher may lead the discussions of Lesson 4 exercises, around following points: 

1. What was average time of producing one boat in unit production. 

2. How much time did the groups take to make four boats in Group production. 

3. What is average time of production in group production. 

4. How does the time of production for one piece compare for the two methods of production. 

5. Ask the students to set up their own quality checking norms for the boats. 
Eg. Is the shape correct.? Is the colouring done properly? 

6. A boat that does not suit the quality norm is said to be defective. 

7. A defect occurs when something is produced incorrectly.